History of the Media, Radio, and Television

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When were the forms of media created? When did advertising first show up? Who owns the media?

Creation of the various forms of media

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Newspapers & Magazines ~ 1880

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Movies ~ 1910

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Television ~ 1945

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Cable Television ~ 1980’s

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Satellite Television, Internet, Digital Communication ~ End of the 20th century

In 1920, radio was first developed, primarily for use by the military, strictly for sendingHistory of the Media – Old Radios messages from one location to another. David Sternoff, the then-president of RCA, first had the idea to sell radio sets to consumers, or what were then called radio receivers. However, consumers needed a reason to buy radios, so RCA was the first to set up radio stations all over the country. Between 1920 and 1922, 400 radio stations were set up, starting with KBKA in Pittsburgh. Stations were also set up by universities, newspapers, police departments, hotels, and labor unions.

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By 1923, there were 600 radio stations across the United States, and $83 million worth of sets had been sold.

The biggest difference in radio before and after 1923 was that the first advertising was not heard on the radio until 1923. RCA at the time was made up of four companies:

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AT&T

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General Electric

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United Fruit

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Westinghouse

United Fruit was one of the first global corporations, and one of the first to advertise on the radio. The AT&T division of RCA first thought about selling time on the air to companies, which marked the start of “toll broadcasting.” WEAF was the first station to operate this way, causing widespread outrage, and accusation of “polluting the airwaves.”

Because of this controversy, the practice of selling advertising time was called “trade name publicity.” Sponsors linked their name with a program on the air, rather than advertising a specific product in a 30 second “commercial” as we know it today.

Why did AT&T decide to experiment with charging companies for air time?

AT&T was not making any money from broadcasting at the time since they only made transmitters, not receivers. They only made money when new radio stations bought the equipment required to broadcast. They did not make money from consumers buying radios.

AT&T also started the practice of paying performers for their time on the air, rather than only volunteers, which was standard practice for radio content up until that point.

The first radio network

In 1926, RCA set up the first radio network, NBC. They decided it was more effective and efficient to produce shows in New York City, and then link the main radio station with stations all across the country, connected by AT&T (another RCA company) phone lines. (Now television networks are linked by satellite to their affiliates).

This was the beginning of the network affiliates system. The ideal network makes sure everyone in the country is capable of listening to their signal. NBC at the time had two philosophies:

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Radio content was a “public service,” whose function was to sell radios.

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Radio content was designed to generate income from advertising.

History of the Media In 1927, the second network was formed. It was CBS, started by William Paley. Paley was the first to think that networks could make money strictly from advertising, not even getting involved in the sales of radios. Like AT&T, CBS did not make radios. From the start, they made their money from selling advertising.

The rising of radio networks caused the Radio Act of 1927 to be passed, which established the FRC, or what is now known as the FCC, to allocate broadcast licenses. The need for such an organization was brought on by the fact that airwaves are limited resources, and broadcasting itself is a scarce public resource. By the 1930’s, the structure of radio have been set by the commercial format, although advertising never dominated radio like it would television later on.

In the 1920’s and ’30’s, radio programs were divided into two groups. Sponsored shows, which had advertisers, and unsponsored shows, which did not. The radio station paid for the unsponsored shows. The sponsored shows, on the other hand, were created entirely by the company sponsoring the show; advertisers were totally in charge of the radio station’s content. The content became advertising. Radio set the precedent for television, in that the same companies that controlled radio early on went on to control television.

Soon thereafter, television inherited the structure of radio. In the ’40’s, during the rise of television, RCA also held a monopoly on all television sets sold. By 1945-1955, advertising had taken over all of television. Television was organized around the premise of selling things. The entire television industry was creating a political atmosphere of suspicion and fear. Senator Joseph McCarthy, the founder of McCarthyism, which was based on the fear of Communism, and the HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee, began to question people involved in television about their beliefs and associations.

What affected television in its early stages?

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Politics (McCarthyism / HUAC).

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Blacklists: From almost the inception of television, many writers, directors, and actors were considered to be pro-Communist and/or un-American.

Certain topics were totally off-limits at the time for television, particularly issues of race relations in the 1960’s. Overall, networks were not happy with the political situation for television in the 1960’s, both in terms of the blacklists, and of the fact that when every show had one sponsor, that sponsor controlled the entire program. Networks preferred to control the program, by way of moving to multiple sponsors/advertisers, where networks would retain control of the show, and advertisers would buy time in between the programming.

In the 1950’s, networks decided to eliminate the practice of sponsors controlling the shows with a move to spot selling, or advertisements between programs, as we know it today. What caused the move to spot selling?

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Discovery of fraud in the quiz shows on television. Quiz shows were extremely popular at the time, and were liked by the networks, the sponsors, and the viewers alike. It turned out, however, that quiz shows were largely fixed. Charles Van Doren on “21” became a huge star due to his repeated wins, until it came out that the whole thing had been fixed. In the case of “The $64,000 Question,” the owner of Revlon was personally hand-selecting the winners and losers on the show.

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It was becoming financially difficult for just one advertiser to support an entire show.

Around this same time came the inception of ratings to measure a show’s popularity. Ratings, quite simply, measure the number of people watching a show. To understand why ratings are so important, it’s crucial to understand how the television industry works, through three questions, and their respective answers:

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Who owns television? [The networks]

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What is sold on television? [Viewer’s time, not television shows]

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Who are the customers of television? [Advertisers, not viewers]

This might be a counterintuitive concept for some. The networks, which own television, areHistory of the Media – Old Television the buyers of shows, not the sellers. On the other hand, they sell our eyeballs, so to speak, to advertisers. Networks want the maximum possible profit from buying and selling time, both viewers’ time, and advertisers’ time.

The primary measure of television ratings, which determine the price of that time being bought and sold, is AC Nielsen, an independent company which provides information as to who watches what on television. Currently, about 4,000 households are used to represent the national viewing of television. In the 1980’s, only 1,200 households were used. Some households have an electronic device installed on th
eir television which tracks what they watch, while others keep a diary of viewing habits.

There are two measures for determining a show’s audience. One is the rating, and the other is the share.

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Rating: Percentage of total homes with televisions tuned into a particular show.

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Share: Percentage of those watching television at a particular time who are tuned into a particular show.

The share is always greater than the rating. Ratings are more important for advertisers, and share is more important to the networks.

Example:

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Total households with televisions: 150 million

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Total households watching television at 8pm on Monday nights: 90 million

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Total households watching American Idol at 8pm on Monday nights: 45 million

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Therefore: Rating: 30, Share: 50

It’s important to note how many factors can skew the results. Shows cost producers much more than the networks typically pay them for those shows. The way for producers to make money is by getting the networks to renew the show, in order to have a shot at making money from syndication on other channels, also knows as reruns. That is the case when individual stations (say for example, the Miami affiliate of ABC wants to carry Seinfeld), buy the rights to a show from the producers of that show. Shows that last only one season, for the most part, lose millions of dollars. One of the most important factors in whether shows will be renewed or not is their rating.

This brings us to how ratings can be skewed. For example, if a show has a 20 share, and it needs a 25 share to be renewed for another season, what might the producers do? In principle, they need to convince another 5% of the people watching television when their show is on to watch their show; this is no simple task, as that involves convincing millions of people. However, since the ratings are based on those 4,000 Nielsen households, that means that they could convince just 200 Nielsen households to watch their show, which would increase the share from 20 to 25. This is why Nielsen households must be kept totally secret from the networks. When the Nielsen households have leaked to the networks, one way which they got people to watch their show was by offering viewers a small sum of money for filling out a survey about a commercial which they were told would play only during a particular show. Since they had to watch that channel while their show was on, this would boost the share.

Once ratings are determined, advertising prices are set by two factors:

* The size of the audience.

* The demographics (income, age, gender, occupation, etc) of the audience.

In short, the job of television programs is to collect our time as a product, which they then sell to advertisers. Programs have to support the advertising, delivering viewers in the best possible state of mind for buying when the time for the commercials comes, which brings us to the Golden Age of Television.

The 1950’s are considered the “Golden Age of Television.” During this time, something called the “Anthology Series,” where different actors each week took part in a show gained History of the Media – I Love Lucypopularity across the board…that is, with everyone except for advertisers. The anthology series format was not right for advertisers, as it covered topics which involved psychological confrontations which did not leave the viewers in the proper state of mind for buying the products shown to them between program segments. The subject matter of the anthology series was of the type that undermined the ads, almost making them seem fraudulent.

This brought up the question of what to network executives actually want shows to do? The answer is not to watch a program that makes them feel good, makes them laugh, or excites them, but rather to watch the television for a set amount of time. With so many new shows being proposed, standards began to be intentionally, or unintentionally, laid out for what shows could and couldn’t do. Risks could only be taken at the beginning and/or end of shows. Laugh tracks were conceived to tell the audience when to laugh. Programs began being tested with audiences prior to being put on television and/or radio. Show writers now had to write shows that would test well.

Naturally, this caused many of the same elements and themes to appear in all shows. This was the beginning of recombinant television culture, where the same elements are endlessly repeated, recombined, and mixed.

This same culture is what perpetuated the idea that people watch television, not specific shows. While people certainly choose to watch certain shows instead of others, people less commonly choose to watch television instead of other things. People watch television. Regardless of what was on, television viewing rates were extremely stable.

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Media Server – 5 Simple Steps to Convert Your Old PC Into a Media Streamer

Yesterday while hanging out in my attic among all the old stuff I come across my old PC. This computer has been laying there for the last for at least a couple years. Thinking of discarding it properly I started searching for articles on disposal on the internet. While searching for couple of minutes I found a site suggesting the idea of converting an old PC into a media server. Having some bucks to spare and some free time on my hands I decided to go for it.

Just What is a Media Server?

First thing first I am sure some of you are wondering like I initially was, just what is a Media Server. A Media Server is a PC system designed to receive and record TV programs, play back video and handle the digital music and photo libraries available in its storage through a Television unit connected to it. The main components are a robust storage system with ample hard drive space and processing power and Random Access Memory sufficient enough to deliver seamless playback of HD content.

1. Check the performance of your old pc:

Analyzing the old PC, I figured out that it has a 2.4 GHz Pentium IV processor with 256 MB of RAM. While checking the minimum specifications I found that it may struggle when trying to play the HD 1080 videos so I decided to go for a RAM upgrade to 1 GB and stick to the same processor in order to save some bucks in case I also needed to upgrade the hard drive.

2. Check storage; examine hard drive capacity and speed:

The storage capacity of the old PC is about 40 GB IDE drive; which is much less as compared to the latest media servers. Generally for a media server you should have a capacity of 500gb to have enough space to hold the equivalent of 100s of DVDs. Speed of the hard drives is also a consideration. Luckily both of these problems can be corrected with a raid hard drive array.

RAID vs Single Hard drive:

The RAID array consists of more than one hard drives embedded as a single unit for high capacity and speed than the single hard drive with an external backup. Depending on how the RAID array is configured you can also configure the array for back up security. This is an added benefit as no data would be lost in the event of a hard drive crash.

3. Think about purchasing a Digital TV tuner Card:

A digital TV tuner card is a basic component of media server used to receive and record video content from the local cable or satellite system to the local hard drive. This card is very useful as it will allow to input TV into your PC and record your favorite shows. With several companies charging fees as high $6 per DVR box per month, the one time cost of a TV tuner card could save you quite a bit of money in the long run.

4. Choosing software for you media server:

Windows XP Media Center Edition is a great choice of software for a media server; having a beautiful graphic interface and easy configuration, it is however a bit expensive. If you are strapped for cash Linux based operating systems might be a good choice as they are totally free and have My the server purpose; but they can be hard to configure.

5. Connecting Server to the TV:

The last step involved in this project is establishing a connection between the PC and the TV. You now have to make the decision on whether to connect the media server through a wired or wireless connection. Wireless systems can be more convenient and will allow you to access your media server from throughout your house. Furthermore in terms of the placement of the wireless systems the server can be hidden out of view. The drawback to wireless systems is that they can be expensive. If only a single TV unit is present then simply running a wire from the server to the TV may be better both in terms of cost and speed of setup.

The Best Roku Media Sources

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Roku is a streaming media player that plays video, music, and other media. Roku connects your TV to an amazing amount of content with no computer required. All you need is a high-speed Internet connection. Roku can be set-up in as little as 5 minutes and is simple to use. Also, because it streams the media directly from the Internet to your TV, there is no need to wait for downloads. Your favorite media is available instantly.

There are many Roku Media options available. The most popular media providers include Netflix, Hulu Plus, and Amazon Video On Demand. All three of these options provide access to your favorite movies and television programs in high-definition.

Netflix currently has an unlimited streaming subscription option for only $7.99 per month. The Netflix library contains nearly every movie or television show available on DVD. However, the portion of the Netflix library available for streaming is smaller. Most new releases are not available for streaming with Netflix. Also, a Netflix subscription does not give you access to current season TV shows.

Hulu Plus is a very popular service video streaming service. It offers a subscription for $7.99, the same price as the Netflix streaming only subscription. Hulu Plus offers current and prior season TV shows from most networks. It also offers a large selection of movies, although many new release premium movies are not available.

Amazon Video On Demand has a different pricing model than Netflix or Hulu Plus. Amazon Video On Demand does not have a monthly fee. Instead, you pay to purchase or rent movies and TV shows. TV shows and movies can be rented for as little as 99 cents. Amazon Video On Demand offers nearly any movie or TV show that is available on DVD. It also offers current season TV shows.

The best Roku media source for you depends on what content you want the most. To cover the most options with the least cost, many people chose to purchase a monthly Netflix subscription and then supplement this with an occasional Amazon Video On Demand purchase. This way, you get most of your favorite content for $7.99 per month. Then, if there is a must watch TV show or new release movie that is not included in the Netflix library, it can still be purchased from Amazon Video On Demand.

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Media Training 101: The 3 Biggest Media Interview Mistakes

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Doing a media interview, whether it be in front of a television camera, in a radio studio or sitting down with a reporter or blogger, in-person or over the phone, has the tendency to make otherwise confident, eloquent people say really dumb stuff. You need look no further than the evening news – to those political hopefuls during election season – to see the proof.

And it’s not just the big shots in the spotlight either. Often times, without any provocation, the little guy, too, can find himself suddenly answering to the media about a scandal in his industry, whether or not he or his company is personally involved.

But there are a few simple strategies you can arm yourself with that will not only boost your confidence, but will also help you to speak with purpose, boosting your credibility with your customers and stakeholders.

Of course, there’s nothing quite like stepping in front of a real TV camera to completely understand the media interview experience, but grasping the following concepts will get you well on your way. Show me somebody who says they were “misquoted” in the press and I bet I can show you where they committed at least one of the…

3 Biggest Media Interview Mistakes

1. Failing to Prepare Whether you’re going to the press or the press is coming to you, a media interview should rarely come as a surprise. Get your head out of the hole and do your homework. Thinking you can just “wing it” is a sure-fire recipe for disaster.

Know what the issues are surrounding your organization and/or your industry. Don’t discount an issue just because you’re not comfortable with it – that’s surely what they’ll ask you about, whether you want them to or not. Expect it!

2. Not Knowing Your Key Messages – Whether your media interview is proactive or reactive, knowing your key messages is crucial to making the interview work for you. Without your key messages, you’re merely coming off as reactionary, uninformed, or worse yet, defensive.

No matter what a reporter asks you, you can ALWAYS tie-in one of your key messages. Pay close attention to someone who does a lot of media interviews and you’ll soon pick up on this technique. It takes practice, but great communicators know how to do this seamlessly.

3. “No Comment” – Oh really?! Then you must be hiding something! That’s the message you’re sending when you answer with “No comment.” Even if you’re not hiding something, but you still feel like the only possible response is “no comment”, then you have committed egregious and unforgivable acts of #1 & #2 above!

If you can’t speak on a particular subject, tell the reporter so and try to give a reason why. Then, hit ’em with a key message.

Let’s be clear here… this is by no means an end-all list. We’ve merely scratched the surface of the many ways you can avoid a media interview meltdown. There are many other mistakes we see people make time and again when facing the media… mistakes that tarnish reputations and damage, or worse yet, destroy client relationships.

And not all strategies are written in stone either. Absolutes are very tricky things. But by adopting these and other media interview strategies, you’ll be much less likely to ever have to utter, “I was misquoted!”

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Sling Media Technologies For Satellite TV Viewers

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Now you will be able to watch your favorite live or recorded television program even when you are not in your home. The service providers of satellite TV have entered in a long term business venture with Sling Media to introduce some of their technologically superior products for its subscribers. The introduction of these high tech devices has completely changed the way of watching TV contents.

Sling Media is a California based Technology Company that came in to existence in the year 2004. Their first product Slingbox was launched in the US market soon after the formation of this company and become huge popular among people. Slingbox is a first of its kind product that is capable of streaming live or recoded television contents over the internet. With the help of this device, people can see their TV shows either on their notebook PCs or on their smartphones. Seeing the immense popularity of their Slingbox hardware, the company launched many variants of Slingbox. The variants are Slingbox Solo, Slingbox 700U and Slingbox PRO-HD.

The Slingbox hardware’s are equipped with a unique technology called Placeshifting. In fact this is the technology that is enabling you to take your TV along with you. With the help of this technology, the recorded or live TV programs are streamed via high speed broadband internet connection. Therefore you can enjoy your chosen show either from a hotel, restaurant, coffee shop or even half way across the world. Just think for a while, you need to attend an important business meeting and on the same day one of the biggest collage football event is about to take place. You simply cannot skip the meeting nor do you want to miss the game. You might have faced such problems like this in your life.

The problem can be solved only when you get one of the Slingbox devices in your home you can get this amazing hardware from your satellite TV service provider. Simply connect the Placeshifting with your existing DVR enabled receiver by using the composite AV cable. After that you need to connect your network router with the Slingbox device by using the supplied Ethernet cable. This is how you must connect your Placeshifting enabled Slingbox devices with your DVR and network devices. But it is always advised to go through the instruction manual thoroughly before proceeding forward.

To watch your favorite TV content on your notebook PC or smartphones then you need to install Sling Player software on both devices. SlingPlayer software is a product of Sling Media and is available for Microsoft Windows and Apple’s Macintosh. It is also available for various mobile platforms such as iPhone OS, Blackberry OS, Windows Mobile and also for Symbian mobile operating systems. Once this software is installed on your PC or Mobile then your device becomes ready to play the streamed contents from your satellite TV receiver.

So here you can see that satellite TV service is all about technology. The service providers have introduced this amazing technology so that you cannot miss any of your favorite TV show.

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The Benefits of Investing in an Archos 5 Digital Media Player

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There used to be a time when portable digital media players were intended to play audio and video files only. The trend seems to be changing nowadays because manufacturers are trying to add additional functions into their portable media player models. Take, for instance, the new Archos 5 – this digital media player comes with integrated web browsing facilities. Connectivity to the internet is availed with the aid of Wi-Fi. Some other interesting pointers that make this particular product revolutionary and innovative will be outlined in the rest of the passages.

One of the best factors that deserve to be mentioned first is the touch enabled screen provided on Archos 5. Imagine browsing through the web using such a device! I do realize that many other media players now come with augmented facilities to connect with the internet. Nevertheless, Archos 5 is the first portable digital media player to make this distant dream a reality. The model is offered in three flavors – these models come with the 60GB, 120GB and 250GB hard disk space. There is widespread confusion regarding the “term” that must be used to depict the true functionality of the device.

While the manufacturer advertises Archos 5 as a “Wi-Fi enabled internet tablet”, some of the renowned reviews still portray the device as a portable digital media player. In fact, when you first see the device in person, you are going to commit the mistake of treating it as a GPS unit. Well, if you were thinking about on those lines, do not fret; because in the coming weeks, the manufacturer has promised an upgrade for Archos 5. This firmware upgrade will make the device to function like as GPS unit (similar to the ones, which are fitted into the automobiles).

A major gripe, which was depicted in countless review sessions of the Archos 5 (which was conducted by independent reviewers), is that the device is a fingerprint magnet. Well, we too experienced the same – the good news is the inclusion of a cleaning cloth along with the boxed product. Despite the screen being brighter than most of the modern portable media players, it could not suppress the glares. Although the manufacturer has included USB connectivity, interfacing the device with your computer is going to mar the user experience. Thoughtfully, the product comes with a proprietary USB dock that must be used whenever you wish to transfer media files into the Archos 5.

Support for many video and audio codec makes it a pleasure to use this device. One can also read PDFs and text files with the same. If you are bored, you can spend some time trying your interesting games. It is better to check the official website for the newest firmware – the manufacturer incorporates additional features into the Archos 5 via these firmware updates. The same device (although enabled via suitable software) also supports High Definition (720p) playback of the video. The average pricing starts from $249 and increases according to the storage size.

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LDS Art and Media

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In 1986 – 1987 the Mormon church released films to the dating back from the 1940s to more contemporary. The films were placed in a series which is commonly called “Church Films”. These films were in a 27 VHS set. At this time not everybody had a VCR and DVDs were not invented. Most churches in North America were setup with a television and VCR. Each library was stocked with these films. They were available to the general public, however, most individual homes were not equipped with home theater systems. Most LDS church libraries still have these films or at least a portion of these films. Many youth in the 1980s and 1990s will remember “Johnny Lingo” or “The Phone Call”. However, these films did not actually replace filmstrips, an older technology, until the late 90s.

Films strips are 35 mm still framed images that are projected by light onto a wall or white screen. An audio tape provides the sound. When the slide needs to be changed you simply turn a dial on the projector, and a small beep or buzz indicates at what point during the presentation the slide needs to be changed.

As VHS tapes were replacing film strips, the Mormon church authorized some film strips be converted to VHS; they were just still images that were transitioned.

Many people think that LDS cinema started with the film “God’s Army”; however the LDS church has been producing films since the 1940s. These films might never have been released in conventional theaters, but film has been an important part of LDS culture for many years.

LDS films are a form of art. The LDS motion picture studio is located in Provo, Utah and actively creates films to this day. Many of these films can be seen in Salt Lake City as a way to introduce people to the Church. There have been three major films played exclusively in Salt Lake City.

  • “Legacy” – a film about the early pioneers
  • “Testaments” – a historical drama of Christ’s visit to the America’s from the Book of Mormon
  • “Joseph Smith The Prophet of the Restoration” – a film on the life of the Prophet Joseph Smith

LDS art can be in many forms, and one great form of art is film. LDS people love film and believe that it is a medium for sharing their faith with others as well as to strengthen their own testimonies.

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Digital TV Antenna Basics

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You may laugh and say that TV antennas are a leftover from a forgotten time. With your 500 channel satellite package or your 14 premium cable movie channels, you’d be right to scoff. Until you get your bill. Many viewers are embracing digital TV antennas to get the same audio quality and stellar that you pay big bucks for; all for free. There are several advantages to OTA (over-the air) reception and I’ll discuss those along with how to choose the best antenna for HDTV in your area.

Broadcast HDTV channels are the best of the best

The digital television transition is bringing with it solutions to the 2 most annoying troubles of analog broadcasting; snow and picture ghosting. Digital TV channels allow for a crisp, ghost-free picture and clear sound. All local content is not yet broadcast in HDTV, so it’s typical for stations to broadcast their digital TV channels in standard definition during the day and switch to a full widescreen HDTV broadcast during the “prime time” hours.

If you’ve never experienced what a digital TV antenna can do for you, here are a few reasons to consider one:

  • Over-the-air (OTA) digital TV channels are free. With the exception of the costs you incur for your antenna, receiving digital stations with an HDTV antenna is free.
  • You get access to all your local channels. Many satellite and cable companies will not carry all of the local stations in your area. On many systems, you have access to some of your local stations in exchange for an extra monthly fee.
  • Free access to out of town stations. It’s possible that with the right equipment you can receive out of town stations and often be able to catch sporting events that are “blacked out” in your area.
  • Local digital TV channels are everywhere. Although the largest concentration of digital TV stations are in metropolitan areas, 90% of US viewers can easily get 6 or more digital TV channels.
  • OTA reception has the best picture quality. While your satellite or cable company may offer 500 channels, this comes with a price. They use data compression techniques that lower the audio and image quality of your broadcast often adding distortion or artifacts.

Of course in addition to your HDTV antenna, you will also need some sort of HDTV tuner to receive these digital TV channels, more often than not on newer TVs this ability is already built in. If you have an “integrated” HDTV, or it mentions an ATSC tuner, you are ready to rock. Also, if you currently subscribe to an HDTV package from DISH or DIRECTV, your receiver almost certainly includes an over-the-air HDTV tuner.

Finding your OTA digital TV channels

One of the best ways to find specific digital TV information for your address is the AntennaWeb.org website. You simply put in your address and it will return a list of the digital stations in your area. It allows you to look at both analog and digital TV stations in your area, or you can filter it to show digital broadcasts only. Since many stations broadcast from the same area, they will be clustered together on your results page. Now that you know what digital TV channels are available in your area, it’s time to pick your antenna.

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22 Tips on What to Wear For a TV Interview

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Recently one of my author clients was featured on FOX News Boston. Before he was interviewed on camera he was nervous but was able to recall the media training that we put him through a few weeks earlier. That, along with a pep talk, and he was good to go.

What about YOU? Are you ready to be interviewed by local or national TV? If you’ve not had media training, believe me it’s too late once you get the call. You may have to get in a car or on a plane within an hour’s notice. It’s too late to get the training then. That’s why you need to be prepared before you get the call.

My experience as a publicist has convinced me that one of the greatest concerns about being interviewed on television is what to wear. For radio or newspaper interviews, fashion doesn’t matter but how you appear is critical for TV. When my clients agree to media coaching, my first choice for them to work with is TJ Walker, CEO of Media Training Worldwide.

TJ Walker is one of the leading authorities on media training in the world. With more than 20 years of media training experience, Walker has trained thousands of CEOs, authors, and experts, including leading government officials in the United States, European Prime Ministers, and African diplomats.

Here’s a quick list of “What to Wear and Not Wear!” that TJ Walker and other media coaches have developed that I share with you now so you can look terrific for your TV interview.

1. Don’t wear white, black or red. White glows and becomes the most noticeable thing on the TV screen. Black is too harsh and can suck up all the light. Reds “bleed” on camera and are distracting.

2. Pastel shirts work well on TV.

3. The safest color on TV is blue.

4. Don’t wear dangly earrings. They distract.

5. Remove jewelry that moves, makes noise, or could hit your microphone.

6. Be wrinkle-free.

7. Don’t wear stripes, herringbone, small intricate designs, or flashy jewelry. They are hard for a TV camera to pick up on.

8. Don’t wear checks.

9. Dress in a simple, boring manner, unless you are a fashion designer.

10. TV viewers should focus on your face and what you say, not your clothes.

11. Men should have about an inch of their shirt cuff showing.

12. Avoid light colored pants.

13. Wear over-the-calf socks so your skin doesn’t show if you cross your legs.

14. Don’t wear more than one ring per hand.

15. Women shouldn’t wear short skirts if you want people to focus on your message.

16. If you wear a dark shirt, dark suit, and dark tie, you will look like you are auditioning to be a hit man on the “Sopranos.”

17. Vests look stuffy on TV.

18. Don’t wear stripes. They dance around on the screen and are distracting.

19. Avoid hair products that add shine.

20. No visible logos or companies or brands, except for your own company logo.

21. People shouldn’t judge you by your appearance, but they will.

22. If you do or wear anything distracting on TV, people will remember that and nothing you say.

Clothes are the major factor in controlling how you appear to viewers. While appearance is critical for success on television you also must be concerned about the words that come out of your mouth, the knowledge you display, and the self-confidence you demonstrate. Media coaches like TJ Walker and marketing experts like myself will make sure you are fully prepared for your big day!

The bottom line: RELAX, you’ll do fine. The butterflies you’re feeling are what will drive you to do your best! Remember, it’s not like they are going to ask you the square root of 656! They’re asking you about your book, your company, your story which you obviously know. Just follow these helpful tips, talk things over with your publicist and you’ll look as good as you sound.

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